This dense, non-native shrub or small tree grows up to 15 feet tall (E). Its oval, toothed leaves, about 3 inches long and 2 inches wide, are mostly opposite on the twigs (A). The long thorns are at the ends of twigs and may best be seen after the leaves have fallen. Female and male flowers are on the same plant. The male flower is greenish yellow (B). The spherical fruit, about 1/2 inch in diameter, is first green then black (D).
Grows along roadsides and in woodlands near water, flowering in May. In Fontenelle Forest, uncommon along Stream Trail.
This invasive shrub is being controlled by cutting. It is host to Oak Crown Rust, the orange spots on some of the images above (B,C).
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